英語学習

無料の英語学習教材「TED」で英語学習「Underwater astonishments」

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海洋探査のパイオニアであるデビッドギャロが深海に棲む、色を変えるイカや完璧にカモフラージュするタコ、ネオンライトを発する魚などの驚愕の生物を紹介します。

We're going to go on a dive to the deep sea, and anyone that's had that lovely opportunity knows that for about two and half hours on the way down, it's a perfectly positively pitch-black world. And we used to see the most mysterious animals out the window that you couldn't describe: these blinking lights -- a world of bioluminescence, like fireflies. Dr. Edith Widder -- she's now at the Ocean Research and Conservation Association -- was able to come up with a camera that could capture some of these incredible animals, and that's what you're seeing here on the screen.

That's all bioluminescence. Like I said: just like fireflies. There's a flying turkey under a tree.

I'm a geologist by training. But I love that. And you see, some of the bioluminescence they use to avoid being eaten, some they use to attract prey, but all of it, from an artistic point of view, is just positively amazing. And a lot of what goes on inside -- There's a fish with glowing eyes, pulsating eyes. Some of the colors are designed to hypnotize, these lovely patterns. And then this last one, one of my favorites, this pinwheel design. Just absolutely amazing, every single dive.

That's the unknown world, and today we've only explored about 3 percent of what's out there in the ocean. Already we've found the world's highest mountains, the world's deepest valleys, underwater lakes, underwater waterfalls -- a lot of that we shared with you from the stage. And in a place where we thought no life at all, we find more life, we think, and diversity and density than the tropical rainforest, which tells us that we don't know much about this planet at all. There's still 97 percent, and either that 97 percent is empty or just full of surprises.

But I want to jump up to shallow water now and look at some creatures that are positively amazing. Cephalopods -- head-foots. As a kid I knew them as calamari, mostly.

This is an octopus. This is the work of Dr. Roger Hanlon at the Marine Biological Lab, and it's just fascinating how cephalopods can, with their incredible eyes, sense their surroundings, look at light, look at patterns. Here's an octopus moving across the reef, finds a spot to settle down, curls up and then disappears into the background. Tough thing to do.

In the next bit, we're going to see a couple squid. Now males, when they fight, if they're really aggressive, they turn white. And these two males are fighting. They do it by bouncing their butts together, which is an interesting concept. Now, here's a male on the left and a female on the right, and the male has managed to split his coloration so the female only always sees the kinder, gentler squid in him.

Let's take a look at it again. Watch the coloration: white on the right, brown on the left. He takes a step back, he's keeping off the other males by splitting his body, and comes up on the other side -- Bingo! Now, I'm told that's not not just a squid phenomenon with males, but I don't know.

Cuttlefish. I love cuttlefish. This is a Giant Australian Cuttlefish. And there he is, his droopy little eyes up here. But they can do pretty amazing things, too. Here we're going to see one backing into a crevice, and watch his tentacles -- he just pulls them in, makes them look just like algae. Disappears right into the background. Positively amazing. Here's two males fighting. Once again, they're smart enough, these cephalopods; they know not to hurt each other. But look at the patterns that they can do with their skin. That's an amazing thing.

Here's an octopus. Sometimes they don't want to be seen when they move, because predators can see them. This guy can make himself look like a rock, and, looking at his environment, can actually slide across the bottom, using the waves and the shadows so he can't be seen. His motion blends right into the background -- the moving rock trick.

So, we're learning lots new from the shallow water. Still exploring the deep, but learning lots from the shallow water. There's a good reason why: the shallow water's full of predators -- here's a barracuda -- and if you're an octopus or a cephalopod, you need to really understand how to use your surroundings to hide.

In the next scene, you're going to see a nice coral bottom. And you see that an octopus would stand out very easily there if you couldn't use your camouflage, use your skin to change color and texture. Here's some algae in the foreground -- and an octopus. Ain't that amazing?

Now, Roger spooked him, so he took off in a cloud of ink, and when he lands, the octopus says, "Oh, I've been seen. The best thing to do is to get as big as I can get." That big brown makes his eyespot very big. So, he's bluffing. Let's do it backward. I thought he was joking when he first showed it to me. I thought it was all graphics. So here it is in reverse. Watch the skin color; watch the skin texture. Just an amazing animal, it can change color and texture to match the surroundings. Watch him blend right into this algae. One, two, three.

And now he's gone, and so am I. Thank you very much.

ボキャブラリー

opportunity: 機会、チャンス   

perfectly: 完全に、ばっちり

positively: 積極的に、断じて、そうだとも

pitch-black: 真っ黒

describe: 説明する、述べる

blinking: まばたき、またたく

bioluminescence:   生物発光

fireflies(firefly) : ホタル

Conservation: 保全

come up with: …に追いつく、を示す、提案する

capture: 捕捉、捕まえる

incredible: 信じられない、すばらしい

geologist: 地質学者

prey: 獲物、捕食

pulsating eyes. : 脈動する目。

hypnotize: 催眠術をかける

pinwheel: 風車
同異義語:wind mill

absolutely: 絶対に

amazing: すごい

explored: 探検

valleys:

thought: 思想、思った

原形 現在分詞 過去形 過去分詞 三人称単数現在
think thinking thought thought thinks

例:I thought we could meet for lunch.
ランチに会えると思った。

diversity: 多様性

density: 密集、濃度、密度、比重

either: どちらか
例:You can take either A or B
AまたはBのどちらかを取ることができます

shallow: 浅い

creatures: 生き物

Cephalopods: 頭足類

calamari: イカ
同異義語: squid、cuttlefish

mostly: ほとんど。

fascinating: 魅惑的

reef: リーフ、礁(しよう) 

settle down: 落ち着く

curls up: 丸まる
例:I like to curl up with a book.
私は寝転んで丸くなって本を読むのが好きだ

disappears: 消える

bouncing: 跳ねる
例:He watches your bouncing breasts.
彼はあなたの揺れる胸を見ている。

interesting: 面白い
例:I have something interesting to tell you.
おもしろい話があるんですよ

She is greatly interested in languages.
彼女はとても言語に興味を持っている

split: 割る、裂く

coloration: 着色

kinder: やさしい、思いやりのある

gentler: より穏やかな
例:It's much gentler to the skin.
そのほうが、肌にはやさしい

other side: 向こう側

Bingo: ビンゴ、当たり! 

phenomenon: 現象

droopy: 垂下

crevice: 隙間

tentacles: 触手(いか、タコの足)

pulls A in: Aを引っ張る

makes A look just like B: AがBのように見える

algae:

Disappears: 消える

smart enough: 十分賢い

predators: 捕食者

blends right into the background: 背景に溶け込む

trick: 騙す

barracuda: バラクーダ(凶暴な魚)

surrounding: 周辺

coral: サンゴ

camouflage: 迷彩、ごまかし

texture: 生地、手ざわり、肌合い

foreground: 前景、表面、最も目立つ位置

Ain't that amazing? : すごくないですか?

The best thing to do is to get as A as I can get: 最善の方法は、できる限りAを取得することです。

best thing to do: やるべきこと

bluff: 絶壁の、切り立った

backward: 後ろ向き

reverse: 逆行する

-英語学習

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